November 27, 2006

SSB Interviews

Armed forces offer very exciting career to young men and women in several fields. Career in the forces, in addition as a career, is also an adventure in itself. To ensure that appropriate candidates are chosen, a comprehensive selection process is adopted by the armed forces through Service Selection Board (SSB) interview. This system of selection is based on the "trait theory" of leadership which assumes that every leader must have some specific and pre-determined leadership traits. It also presumes that such traits can be acquired by a candidate with the passage of time meaning thereby that a person once rejected in an SSB interview is likely to succeed if he acquires some of the traits with the passqage of time. The present system of selection, although is long and takes four to five days, is thus based on an objective assessment of each candidate in which the qualities like initiative, alertness, judgement, courage, physical fitness endurance, cooperation, group planning, decisiveness, knowledge, etc. are judged. In addition, psychological and mental robustness of the candidate vis-a-vis requirements of the Armed Forces is judged and finally an overall assessment of the personality of a candidate is made by way of an exhaustive personal interview.

Scheme of Selection

The existing scheme of selection was initially designed in the US army, after the second World War. The system was adopted in the selection of officers in Army, Navy and Air Force for induction through National Defence Academy, Army Cadet Corps, Officers Training Academy, Indian Military Academy, Air Force Academy or Naval Academy.
The slection process has the following stages/components.

(a) Psychological/Intelligence Test. (b) Group Testing Officer's (GTO's) Test. (c) Personal Interview. (d) Medical Examination.

It is evident that the interview is mainly confined to first three stages of examination while the fourth one concerns the medical examination of only those who get through in the SSB interview comprising of first three components. Evaluation of a candidate is made by three independent examiners. The psychological test is carried out by a psychologist and GTO test is given by a Group Testing Officer (GTO). Personal interview is carried out by the interviewing officer who usually is also the President of the Board.

The interview being an integrated process, culminates with the conference on the final day when all the three examiners gete together to give the final assessment of the candidate. If there is any doubt on any aspect of the personality of the candidate, a few questions are put to him/her and the evaluation is done accordingly. All the candidates who manage to obtain minimum prescribed marks are declared selected. There is no quota or percentage fixed about the number of candidates to be selected and the selection purely depends on the performance of the individuals. The selected candidates then have to undergo a comprehensive medical examination to be finally recommended for selection.

Through this series of features on careers an effort is being made to acquaint the candidates, particularly the fresh candidates, with the techniques of SSB interviews and strategy to be adopted to overcome this final hurdle to a challenging career in the defence forces. In the first part of this series, psychological tests are being dealt with in detail.

The scheme of selection is almost same for Army, Navy and Air Force with the only difference that in case of interviews for the flying branch of Air Force, an additional aptitude test is given to the candidates right at the beginning. The interview usually lasts for four to five days and the arrangements for free boarding and lodging are made for the candidates. Moreover, the candidates appearing before the Board for the first time are entitled to claim travelling allowance for to-and-fro journey upto the selection centre.

Immediately on arrival at the Selection Board a questionnaire is given to all the candidates in which, in addition to personal details, including educational qualifications and details of family, hobbies, games and other extra curricular activities, details about other important happenings in life, friends, ambitions, etc are also sought from the candidates. This questionnaire usually forms the basis for interview. This part also assumes importance, considering the fact that it is of importance to a psychologist to know what a candidate thinks of oneself.

Psychological Tests

(a) Intelligence Tests: First and important part of pscychological tests is the intelligence test. There are two types of intelligence tests. In the first, usually 80 questions are required to be answered within 30 or 35 minutes. The time is lesser for the second in which 60 questions on figures are required to be answered in 20 to 25 minutes. This test presumes that even under adverse circumstances an intelligent person will be able to answer more number of questions accurately. The questions are objective type with multiple choice answers.

To attempt maximum number of questions correctly, the candidates are advised to attempt those questions to start with, about which they are fully sure. The questions which need some more time to answer, must be skipped initially and if after attempting other questions there is some time left, it can then be devoted to the left-out questions. Exhaustive practice in these tests, which appear regularly in the Competition Master, can be of great help in attempting the intelligence tests effectively. A candidate who achieves a good score in these tests may get the benefit of being placed higher in the order of merit if he/she finally makes it in the interview.

(b) Word Association Test: This test aims at judging the personality traits and basic psychology of a candidate. It brings out attitudes, thoughts, desires, feelings and even negative aspects of one's personality. For testing the word association, candidates are shown a word of common usage for about 15 seconds, during which time candidates are supposed to write a sentence. After 15 seconds are over, another word is exposed for 15 seconds, the process continues and candidates are asked to write 50 sentences. The words are easy and of day-to-day usage. Time given to the candidates is so short that they have to write down the very first thought that comes after seeing the word. The psychologists analyse the personality traits, attitudes and feelings on the basis of these natural reactions of the candidates to specific words.

There can be no readymade solutions to the word association test. However, with a little bit of practice the candidates can choose correct sentence. The pessimistic, negative, pervert and counter-productive feelings must be avoided whereas positive feelings of success, honesty, respectfulness, uprightness, optimism, humanism, etc should be highlighted. For example, the word "failure", can be used as "Failure cannot always be avoided", or "Failures are the pillars of success". Whereas the former sentence depicts pessimism and defeat, the latter sentence shows how a negative word can also be used in a positive manner. On similar lines the candidates must prepare himself beforehand for words like defeat, death, disease wrong, etc. It must be ensured that the sentences used are small and convey some positive aspect of one's psyche. Due care must be taken to ensure that the sentences do not depict the feeling of fear, insecurity, anxiety, cowardice, etc. To do well in this test the candidates must practice with several sets of words and do the self appraisal.

(c) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): This technique, also called picture story writing, is one of the most important aspects of psychological test at SSBs. This technique aims at judging the overall personality of a candidate by judging the traits like fearlessness, positive frame of mind, initiative, judgement, courage, temperament, ambitions, and more particularly candidates' suitability for the armed forces. This test is conducted by showing several slides/pictures (usually ten) to the candidate for a short while. Then he is asked to write a small story on the picture. The picture is shown for 30 seconds and the candidate is given a time of 3 minutes for writing a brief story. Needless to say that the time duration is very less and the candidates must think and write fast to complete the story within the stipulated time.

The candidates need special practice to attempt this test successfully. It must be clearly understood that the story which is written by the candidates, depicts their own thoughts, perceptions and imaginations. Hence the initial 30-second time while the picture is displayed, must be utilised in most useful manner. After devoting minimum possible time for understanding the picture, the candidate should appreciate the situation, identify the hero of the story and prepare a simple but well thought of plot for the story. The plot should be simple considering the fact that the story has to be written within 3-minutes. The planned story should depict the feelings of courage, success, hard-work, initiative, ambition, achievement, helpfulness, patriotism and positive bent of mind. It should be ensured that no unnecessary time is wasted in describing the picture. The picture only depicts one of the situations which could form part of the story. It is pertinent to add that candidates may expect at least one picture each about hospital scene, war, road accident, a captive lady, a frustrated youth, a river, a thief, a graveyard, etc. There may be a few vague pictures also. Practice on writing stories on above situation/pictures would assist the candidates to do well in this test.

(d) Situation Reaction Test (SRT): This is last in the series of psychological tests. In the SRT, the candidates are given 4 to 5 reactions to a particular day-to-day situation and the candidates are asked to choose the most appropriate one. This test aims at judging a candidate's aptitude towards cooperation, group interests and positive thinking. No answer is outrightly incorrect or correct. The candidates get weighted marks depending on the degree of correctness of an answer. In all 50 to 60 situations have to be reacted upon in 25 to 30 minutes. The candidates must exercise due care while choosing the alternatives as two to three alternatives may appear to be correct. The answer which appears to be the best in a real life situation must be chosen. Initially, questions appearing easier to answer should be chosen and the candidates should avoid conflicting replies and be considered.

The second part of the interview contains Group Testing Officer's (GTO's) Test. While the first part aims at testing the intelligence and frame of mind of a candidate, the GTO's test is a complete test of one's personality, including physical fitness, mental obustness, leadership qualities, planning flexibility, expression, knowledge, argumentative capabilities, etc. In other words, the performance of every candidate is gauged as a member of a group, and leader of the group, so that his/her behaviour as equal, superior or subordinate is keenly observed and assessed. The group worthiness of a candidate is tested.

The GTO's test includes the following six broad sub-tests:

Group discussion
Group planning exercise
Group obstacles
Command Task
Individual obstacles

Group Discussion
Candidates are divided in groups of 8 to 10 and each group is tested by a GTO. Usually two topics of general interest are given by the GTO to the group and the group is asked to choose one of the topics, on the basis of which the group is asked to proceed with discussion. Every candidate is supposed to express his opinion and views on the topic given. The time for discussion is approximately 20 minutes. After the discussion on the first topic is closed, GTO gives the second topic. During the discussion, the GTO quietly observes the performance and behaviour of the candidates and makes his own assessment.

The group discussion tests the expression, argumentative capabilities, depth of knowledge, initiative, flexibility, participation and authenticity of a candidate. The candidates must comprehend the topic properly, carry out a mental framework of line of discussion to be pursued and plan the discussion quickly. It is always better to take the initiative to start the discussion. Self confidence, clarity in expression, appreciation of opinion of others, keen interest, flexibility and knowledge are some of the properties which are sought by the GTO. Proper tone, volume and level of voice are other important aspects of a good candidate. To do well at group discussions, it is suggested that the candidates should prepare well by selecting certain topics of general interest like role of science, democracy, role of women, sports, evils of dowry, family planning, compulsory military training, students and politics, status of Indian women, etc.

Group Planning Exercise
Under the group planning exercise, a situation is given to the candidates usually on a sand model or cloth model. Each candidate is given the situation in which some problem like taking a patient to hospital within stipulated time, reporting the matter to the police or any other situation is depicted and certain facilities as well as limitations are explained. Considering these given limitations and facilities, the candidates are required to prepare a plan to successfully accomplish the task. The time allotted to the candidates, to write down the solution, is about 10 minutes. Soon after writing down the solution, the group is asked to discuss the solutions and arrive at a group plan. The group then nominates a leader who gets up and gives the group plan. After this, others are also asked to give their plans if there is some material difference in the plan. For this exercise a further time of about 20 minutes is given. The test is planned to test the understanding and analytical capability of the candidates. In addition, in a group where no one is nominated a group leader, opportunity is provided to the natural leaders to emerge as leaders and take over the reins of the group. The individual plan tests the analytical ability and the discussion of the group plan sees whether the candidate is prepared to accept a superior plan over his plan or he is able to convince the group about superiority of his plan against an inferior plan being considered by the group. The candidates must properly appreciate the problem, take stock of the resources available with them and then try to generate some alternatives in the given situation. After considering the pros and cons of every alternative, best alternative should be accepted. By actively participating in the group plan discussion, the candidates should try to get themselves nominated as the group leader to get an edge over the other candidates.

Group Obstacles
Next part of GTO's fest is the group obstacles. It has four sub-parts including Progressive Group Task, Group Obstacle Race, Half Group Task and Final Group Task. These tasks are designed to test the behaviour of a candidate in a group where there are no group leaders nominated. The GTO, therefore, keenly observes the candidates for their qualities like cooperation, group belonging feelings, natural leadership qualities, planning, initiative and task orientation. Group obstacles in all the four sub-parts are in the form of obstacles which cannot be negotiated by an individual and need a group of persons to cross it. The group is explained that within the obstacle area, in which particular parts are "out of bounds", the entire group has to cross the obstacle within a given period of time with the assistance of tools like ropes, planks, wooden logs, etc. The progressive group task has four tasks with each successive task getting tougher and final group task is the repeat exercise to facilitate the GTO to observe only the potential candidates.

The group obstacle race is in the form of an intergroup race in which they also have to carry a sack type of load while crossing the obstacles. Half group task is given by dividing the group into two sub-groups, facilitating the GTO in observing the candidates in a better manner. While crossing these obstacles, or planning to cross these, the candidates should think objectively to negotiate the obstacles with the help of given material. There are usually more than one solution to each obstacle. Immediately on getting the solution, the candidates must start asserting themselves by also seeking advice and suggestions of other candidates. Even if the candidate is unable to arrive at any solution he should try to assume the role of a mediator between several candidates having diverse solutions. Even while actually negotiating the obstacle endeavour should be to take on the most difficult tasks so that an impression of task orientation and leading by example is created in the mind of the GTO.

Command Task
Command Task is aimed at testing the leadership and command capabilities of candidates. In all the earlier exercises, the natural leaders are allowed to emerge. But in some cases, where there are more than one natural leaders, the strongest one will overshadow rest of them. Similarly, a person who is shy by nature, may not be able to exhibit his leadership qualities in a group of equals and hence an opportunity is given to such candidates to show their worth in a formalised situation, where they are declared leaders. In the command task the nature of obstacles and facilitating material remain the same. The only change is that one candidate is nominated as a formal leader, asked to choose his team, plans to negotiate the obstacle and finally executes the plan. The candidate's judgement, planning and analytical capabilities are checked and his capabilities to get a task executed are also tested. The candidate must, therefore, choose his team carefully, choosing the best candidates who are cooperative and physically strong. This reflects his objective assessment of subordinates. Then the leader must explain to his men the objective or task, the facilitating material available to them and spell out the plan as to how he planned to accomplish the task. The plan should be clear and spelt out in clear and commanding manner. After explaining the task to his men, the leader should go ahead with the proper execution of the task by properly supervising and giving supplementary instructions if required. Normally, the work should be got executed from the chosen candidates, but in case some part of obstacle negotiation needs his assistance, he should be ready to do so. At times, the commander may find it difficult to plan a solution to the obstacle. Under such a situation, the commander may ask the members of the group to suggest to him the possible solution.

Individual Obstacles
There are 10 obstacles which are required to be negotiated by every individual within a stipulated period of 3 minutes. The obstacles are not very tough and can be negotiated by any candidate with average physical fitness. These obstacles include climbing ropes, jumping, swinging on ropes, climbing wall, walking over a beam and parallel ropes, etc. The relatively difficult obstacles carry higher marks and easier ones have lesser. In case a candidate can repeat some of the obstacles, after completing all in the given time period, such a candidate gets more than maximum marks to the extent of repetition of obstacles. To do well at this test, the candidate must try to achieve a particular level of physical fitness before proceeding to the SSB interviews. Easier obstacles should be attempted first and even if one is unable to complete all the obstacles within three minutes, one should be satisfied as in the words of one GTO "armed forces need officers, not monkeys". Nevertheless, this test aims at looking for bare minimum level of physical fitness, which can be built up by rigorous pre-commission training in the Training Acadmeies.

Lecturette is last in the series of GTO's tests and is aimed at testing the speech of a candidate. A leader should be able to speak effectively, attract attention while he is talking, have a clear head and clear line of thinking. These qualities are tested by giving a small test to the candidates known as lecturette. This candidate is given about four topic of general nature which do not need any specialised knowledge. The candidates are required to select one topic, prepare for three minutes and then deliver a speech to the group for a period of three minutes. While taking this test, the candidate must select the subject/topic on which he is fully confident of having enough knowledge and material to speak for three minutes. Unnecessary movements of hands, legs, fingers etc should be avoided and the speech should be delivered in a pleasant but authoritative voice. The views expressed should be balanced and extreme positions in views should be avoided. The clarity of thoughts and ideas must be insured.

It is evident from the above that the GTO's test is a comprehensive test of one's personality. An objective assessment of personality of the candidates is made by observing their behaviour in a group and as a leader as well. Capabilities of the candidates like knowledge, expression, leadership, initiative, physical fitness, planning capabilities, understanding, disposition, grasp and task orientation, etc are tested by following a comprehensive and objective method of personality test. The GTO makes the assessment by assigning marks in each of the six exercises and then finally allots the aggregate marks on the basis of overall average assessment.

Personal interview is the last hurdle in the selection process to the defence forces through SSB Interviews, apart from the medical examination. Every candidate is tested by a psychologist, G.T.O. and finally by the President or Deputy President of the Selection Board.

The aim of the personal interview is to have a closer look at the personality of every candidate through conversation in friendly discussion. To keep the interview formal and the candidate at ease, only one interviewer interacts with the candidate. The information given by the candidate, on the very first day in the questionnaire, forms the initial basis for questions during the course of interview.

At an average, every interview lasts about 30-40 minutes. The President of the Board begins in a very friendly manner by asking very personal questions from the candidates like name, detail of the brothers and sisters, occupation of parents, names of good friends, place to which the candidate belonged. About 10 minutes-time is devoted on these questions so that the candidate is put at ease. Name of the educational institutions where one studied, subjects offered, marks obtained etc are a few other questions that may be initially expected. In addition to putting a candidate at ease, the President also observes the qualities of friendliness and the ease with which one can handle simple and personal questions. Other questions in the interview may be about games played, hobbies, girl/boy friends and the means adopted by the candidate to remain fit. As a young and educated person, one is expected to either play or have keen interest in some games. Similarly, every person is expected to have a hobby, be it reading, playing games, swimming, driving, gardening, philately, riding, photography or travelling. Every young candidate, aspiring to become an officer in the armed forces, is also expected to have friendship with the opposite sex. Hence all these questions must be answered accordingly.

Final part of the personal interview may include a few questions on current topics, general knowledge, some imaginary situation for reaction and small simple problems for judging the administrative planning capabilities of the candidate. Problem solving may be judged by depicting a simple real-life imaginary situation involving the brothers, sisters, parents or friends to which reaction of the candidate is judged. Similarly, a small administrative problem may be given to a candidate including organisation of a match or a picnic. The candidate is then asked to give his/her step by step planning and execution and perception of happening of the event, without its actually taking place.

How to tackle?
As has been hinted above, the questions in the interview must be tackled very carefully. The candidates should not be in a hurry to reply the questions. The questions should be properly understood and after considering the contents for a while, reply should be given. Regarding personal questions, the candidates should be careful that they do not hide material facts or try to give wrong facts. It must be understood clearly that the President conducting the inverview handles several candidates every day and does the same thing over the years. Moreover, he is trained to interview candidates in such a manner as the truth comes out. Any attempt to hide some facts or give wrong facts will be certainly picked up by the experienced President and they usually make the candidate realise during the interview itself that he/she was trying to bluff. Moreover, no candidate is expected to be perfect, as every human being does have some weaknesses. However, it should also be ensured that no unnecessary details are given by the candidate. The replies should be to the point and relevant to the questions asked.

The same principle applies to the other questions like games played, hobbies pursued and friends (particularly from the opposite sex) held. The games which are stated to be played by the candidate should be ones about which the candidate has complete knowledge and is able to reply to most of the questions. Similarly, the interviewer devotes a lot of time to the hobby named by the candidate. The candidates must, therefore, make sure that the hobbies and games they name must be fully known to them. Rather than bluffing in this regard, it is better to give a negative reply. Moreover, as earlier pointed out it is good to have friends from the opposite sex with healthy and friendly relations. But in case there is no such friend, the fact should be admitted without hesitation.

Finally, the questions on current affairs and general knowledge need a little-bit of brushing up of knowledge in this field. Regular readers of "The Competition Master" normally do not find much difficulty in tackling this part. Candidates who feel less confident in this part are advised to consult the General Knowledge Refresher by O.P. Khanna.

The questions on the reactions in given situations have to be handled very carefully. The candidates must grasp situation completely, clarify the doubts if any and after taking some time to think, come out clearly with the course of action. Choosing a right course of action is not very difficult. The candidates must imagine themselves in similar situation and consider the most probable course of action which would be taken by them, which invariably is also the right solution to the problem. In their reactions, the candidates must not bring in any artificiality and unnecessary heroism. They should react as if they would have done in a similar real life situation. Due care, therefore, must be exercised as this is one of the most crucial aspects of the interview. Two more questions which must be prepared properly arre (a) "Why do you want to join the Defence Forces?"; (b) "If you are not selected what would you do?" These are often-repeated questions and must be answered very honestly and correctly, without any exaggeration.

Balanced Behaviour
While proper replies to the questions are important balanced conduct of the candidates is still more important. The candidates should avoid use of slangs and be very respectful to interviewer. Use of language and expression are the plus points but the candidates are usually not penalised for weak expression, as it is believed that the problems of fluency and expression are overcome during the training period. The candidates must be composed and maintain their poise. Lack of confidence in replying to the questions reflects lack of knowledge and self-confidence. At the same time one must not be over confident or arrogant.

The interviewers are trained to identify the signals sent by the body language alongwith the spoken word. Whatever is spoken from the mouth must be reflected from the eyes of the candidate as well the tone of his/her voice. Hence, body language must be controlled to convey the same meaning as the word of the mouth. Any contradiction reveals the untruthful intention of the candidate. It should, however, be kept in mind that no unnecessary gesticulations are made with hands and sitting posture is also proper, as recommended for the interviews.

The appearance and bearing of the candidate helps in making a good first impression. The clothes need not be new or highly fashionable and bright, but should be sober and properly cleaned. Hair should be properly groomed and hands should be properly cleaned with the nails cleanly cut. While describing their achievements, the candidates should be modest without being boastful and while admitting weaknesses and failures, they should not be ashamed or evasive. There must be eye-contact with the interviewer for most part of the interview.

Interview Etiquettes
In addition to the above there are certain established interview etiquettes which must be strictly adhered to. One must enter the room after seeking permission. On entering the room, the candidate must suitably wish the interviewer and should sit only when he/she is asked to do so. On being offered a seat, one is expected to thank the interviewer. In case the President offers a hand for handshake, it must be shaken firmly, but the candidates, on their own should not initiate shaking the hands. Seat should be taken promptly and the candidate should sit properly and if possible in an upright manner.

The interviewee should offer a bright and cheerful face. If the President calls for a cup of tea or lights a cigarette and also offers to a candidate, it should be declined gracefully, without annoying him. In a very few cases if the President asks some irritating and personally offending questions, the candidates must not loose their poise and temper. Such a question may be aimed at seeing whether or not a candidate gets provoked easily. The candidates should also show flexibility and admit his/her mistakes, if any pointed out by the President. If a question is not clearly understood or heard, the President may be requested politely to repeat it as there is no harm in it. As the interview is over, the candidates should thank the President, get up without battling with the chair, wish him appropriately and quietly leave the room. The questions like "How have I done Sir?" should not be asked by the candidates while leaving the interview room.

The last stage in the selection process is the conference which takes place on the last day. During the earlier three stages, three selectors i.e. the psychologist, G.T.O. and the President carry out their tests independently. At the conference all the three selectors sit together, call the interviewee and ask two-three formal and routine questions. Candidates who qualify in all the three tests independently are declared successful. All those failing in all or any two are declared unsuccessful. A few candidates marginally failing in one of the tests, may expect a couple of more absorbing questions, including a situation, and on the basis of reply offered by the candidate, final decision about his/her selection is taken. The result is announced soon after the conclusion of the conference and all those who are selected are required to stay back for the medical examination, which takes another three to four days.

Medical Examination
The selected candidates are then required to undergo medical examination. Prior to the medical examination, a form is given to the candidates to be filled which mainly relates to the past medical history of the candidate as well as his/her members of the family. The candidates who pass all the medical tests are finally declared as successful and may expect a call to join the training academy concerned within a month or two of the selection. However, the call letters are issued after clubbing the marks obtained in the written examination of the UPSC as well as marks obtained in the interview. At times it may so happen that even a candidate getting through in the interview finally, may not get a call to join at the concerned training academy if the number of vacancies is less or the candidate is very low in the order of merit. Hence, the candidates are advised not to leave their studies or jobs till they rceive a call to join at the training academy concerned

Getting into Armed Forces


National Defence Academy: Age: 16-19 years. Qualifications: Class 12. Look out for advt in April and October every year.
a) Indian Military Academy: Direct Entry through CDSE conducted by UPSC and SSB Interview. Age: 19-24 years. Qualifications: Degree or equivalent. Look out for advt in April and October every year.
b) Engineering graduates: Age: 20-27 years. Selection through SSB Interview. Qualifications: Engineering degree. Look out for advt in April and October every year.
c) University Entry Scheme: Final and pre-final year students of Engineering degree course. Selection through Campus Interview and SSB Interview. Look out for advt in July.
a) Officers Training Academy: Short Service Commission (Non-Technical): Age: 19-25 years. Qualifications: Degree or equivalent. Selection through CDSE and SSB interview. Look out for advt in March and October.
b) Short Service Commission (Technical): Age: 20-27 years. Qualifications: Engineering degree. Selection through direct SSB Interview. Look out for advt in March and October.
c) Short Service Commission (NCC Special Entry Scheme): Age: 19-25 years. Qualifications: Graduate with 50% marks and 2 years service in NCC. Selection through direct SSB Interview. Advt appears in October/November.
d) Women's Entry Scheme: Age: 19-27 years. Qualifications: Graduate/Post graduate. Selection through direct SSB Interview. Look out for advt in June and December.
For more information on selection to the Army, write to: addl Directorate General of Recruiting. Army HQ West Block III, R.K. Puram, New Delhi - 110066.


Permanent Commission
a) Cadet Entry (NDA), Cadet Entry (Executive) Naval Academy, Goa (through NDA Exam).Qualifications: Class 12 with Physics and Maths. Age: 16-19 years.
b) Graduate Special Entry, Naval Academy, Goa (through CDSE). Qualifiations: B.Sc with Physics and Maths or BE. Age: 19-22 years.
c) Direct Entry Naval Armament Inspection Cadre: Qualifications: BE or PG degree in Electronics or Physics. Age: 19-25 years.
d) Direct Entry Law Cadre: Degree in Law with minimum 55% marks. Age: 22-27 years.
Short Service Commission (Men and Women)
a) Law Cadre: Qualifications: Degree in Law with minimum 55% marks. Age: 22-27 years.
b) Logistics Cadre: Qualifications: BA(Econs)/B.Com with second division or graduation with degree/diploma in Material or Financial Management. Age: 19-25 years.
c) Air Traffic Control (ATC): B.Sc with minimum 50% marks in Physics and Maths. Age: 19-25 years.
Education Branch
Permanent/Short Service Commission: MA degree in Physics, Maths, Chemistry, Computer Science, Humanities or Engineering. Age: 21-25 years. Men and women can apply for Short Service Commission.
Engineering Branch (Marine Engineers)
a) Permanent Commission: Cadet Entry (NDA) or (Tech): Qualifications: Class 12 with PCM. Age 16-19 years. Direct Entry: Qualifications: Engineering Degree. Age: 19-25 years.
b) Short Service Commission: Qualifications: Engineering degree. Age: 19-25 years.
Engineering (Naval Architects)
a) Cadet Entry: Class 12 with PCM with minimum 70% maks in aggregate. Age: 16-19 years.
b) Direct Entry: Degree in Naval Architecture or Engineering. Age: 21-25 years.
Electrical Branch
a) Permanent Commission: Cadet Entry: Qualifications: Class 12 with PCM with minimum 70% marks. Age: 16-19 years. Direct Entry: Engineering degree. Age: 19-25 years.
b) Short Service Commission: Engineering degree. Age: 19-25 years.
For information on selection to the Indian Navy, contact: DDMPR (R & R), Naval HQ, Sena Bhawan, New Delhi - 110011, Tel: 3011213. Fax: 3792957.


NDA: It has a 3 years' course before one is inducted as a Pilot Trainee at the Air Force Academy, Qualifications: Class 12 with Physics and Maths. Age: 16-19 years.
Air Force Academy (CDSE): Qualifications: B.Sc with Physics and/or Maths or BE. Age: 19-23 years.
3. NCC: Qualifications: B.Sc with Physics and/or Maths and a C certificate of the NCC Air Wing. Age: 19-23 years.
Flying Branch (Transport/Helicopter pilots): Age: 19-23 years, relaxable to 25 years for those holding Commercial Pilot License. Applications are called by AIR HQ followed by SSB Interview.
Technical Branch (Aeronautical Engineering: Electronics or Mechanical): Qualifications: BE/B.Tech/Degree with PCM.
Ground Duty Branch: Qualifications: First class graduate or second class post-graduate. Age: 20-23 years for post-graduates. Entrance through SSB Interview. B.Com/M.Com graduates can apply for Accounts Branch. In Meteorological branch, the qualifications required is M.Sc.

Defence Forces

Armed Forces offer excellent career opportunities to the enthusiastic and adventurous young candidates who wish to excel in the uniformed forces. The career provides very good openings for physical fitness, adventure and sporting opportunities on the one hand and good prospects of growth in service, new challenges, attractive salary and perks and the satisfaction of defending the borders of the country on the other. Every selected candidate has to undergo rigorous pre-commissioning training before induction into the service as an officer in the rank of Second Lieutenant (Army) or Acting Sub-Lieutenant (Navy) or Pilot Officer (Air Force), as the case many be. Facilities like free medical aid, concessional residential accommodation, free rations, free/concessional travel by rail, group insurance, Defence Service Officers Provident Fund (DSOP), etc, are also available. The defence officers also get adequate opportunities to undergo specialist training courses like Driving and Maintenance Course, Course on Marine Diving, Parachute Jumping and Sky Diving Course, Mountaineering Course, etc, in addition to routine professional courses. In addition, sufficient opportunities are also available to pursue the interests in activities like sportsboth indoors and well as outdoors.

Time-bound promotions and increments are available up to a particular limit and the officers with the outstanding performance during the entire service career may hope to rise to the highest rank in the respective service. It also enables a service officer to get an opportunity to carry out several acts of gallantry and get rewarded with a decoration from the President of India. Moreover, the service offers a very good social and regimented life alongwith the pleasure of directly defending one's motherland.

Selection Process

Combined Defence Services (CSD) Examination is usually conducted twice in a year by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) in the months of May and October. The examination is conducted to select direct entry candidates as officers to the following four training academies.

(i) Indian Military Academy (IMA) Dehradun for permanent Commission in the Indian Army.
(ii) Officers Training Academy (OTA) Madras for Short-Service Commission in the Indian Army.
(iii) Naval Academy Goa, for Commission in the General Services in the Indian Navy.
(iv) Airforce Academy, Begumpet, Hyderabad for Commission in the Indian Airforce.

The selection process in which over 500 candidates are usually selected every time for all four academies, has the following three stages:

(a) Written Examination by the UPSC.
(b) Intelligence and personality test by the Service Selection Board (SSB).
(c) Medical Examination.

All such candidates as qualify all above tests may hope to get a call for pre-Commission training on the basis of their final rank and choice.

(a) Written Examination: All unmarried male graduates are eligible to appear for IMA and OTA, whereas the qualification required for Naval Academy is B.Sc. with Physics and Mathematics or Bachelor of Engineering. For Air Force Academy a degree with Mathematics and Physics or equivalent is required. The minimum age is 18 years at the time of taking the examination. The upper age limit, however, varies. It is 24 years for OTA, 23 years for IMA, 21 years for Naval Academy and 22 years for the Airforce Academy. Since the selection process takes almost one year (from the time of filling up the form), the actual lower and upper age-limits are enhanced by one year in all above cases.

Subjects of Nepal, Bhutan or Tibetan refugees who immigrated before January 1, 1962, are also eligible subject to a certificate of eligibility from the Government of India. It is also pertinent to add that no reservations on the basis of caste and tribe are there there in Defence Services. However, there are certain seats reserved for the holders of "C-Certificate" of the National Cadet Corps (NCC) who are exempted from passing the written examination. Married candidates, if otherwise eligible, are allowed to take the examination only for OTA Madras.

The written examination is objective type in nature. The candidates are tested in the following three subjects for IMA, Naval Academy and Airforce Academy.

1. English 100 marks (2 hours)
2. General Knowledge 100 marks (2 hours)
3. Elementary Mathematics 100 marks (2 hours)

For OTA Madras, only first two papers are required to be qualified. Question papers are set only in English. The English paper is designed to test the understanding of English language and the use of workman-like words. The syllabus is equivalent to the graduate level examination. The General Knowledge paper includes questions on History of India, Geography, current affairs and the matters of day-to-day observation and the experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person without specific study of any subject. The paper in Elementary Mathematics is of matriculation standard and includes questions on Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Mensuration and Basic statistics.

There are 30 centres of examination all over the country. The names of these centres are: Agartala, Ahmedabad, Aizawl, Allahabad, Bangalore, Bareilly, Bhopal, Bombay, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Cochin, Cuttack, Delhi, Dharwar, Dispur, Gangtok, Hyderabad, Imphal, Itanagar, Jaipur, Jammu, Jorhat, Kohima, Lucknow, Madras, Madurai, Nagpur, Panaji, Patna, Port Blair, Raipur, Sambalpur, Shillong, Shimla, Srinagar, Tirupati, Trivandrum, Udaipur and Vishakhapatnam.

(b) Intelligence and Personality Test: All the candidates declared successful by the UPSC in the written examination are then put to intelligence and personality test by the SSB, popularly known as the SSB interview. This interview is a comprehensive test of one's personality, intelligence and suitability to be chosen as an officer in the Defence Services. SSB interview lasts for 3 to 4 days and has several components like intelligence tests, group discussion, small lectures on general issues, group planning, outdoor group tasks, physical fitness tests, an interview and several psychological tests like situation reaction test, picturestory writing test (TAT), etc. All these tests are intended to judge the physical and mental faculties of a candidate. In broad terms, S.S.B. interview is in fact an assessment of not only intellectual qualities of a candidate but is also an appraisal of his social traits and general interests which help in assessing his suitability for the service.

(c) Medical Examination: The candidates declared successful after SSB interviews are then required to undergo a detailed examination by a medical board in the nearest Military Hospital. This test again lasts for 3 to 4 days. The minimum required standards of medical fitness are quite stringent which are different for all three wings of services. To avoid last minute disappointment the candidates are advised to get themselves medically examined on their own before they apply for the examination.

Pre-Commission Training

A merit list is finally prepared, consisting of candidates who qualify all the three tests listed above. On the basis of their ranking in the final merit list and choice of service, the candidates are selected for pre-Commission training in the concerned Academy and are called upon to join the Academy as a "Gentleman Cadet".

The training is quite rigorous in nature and lays emphasis on physical fitness, drill, academics, weapon training, tactics and professional competence at junior leadership level. After a given duration of training (which varies from Academy to Academy) the successful candidates are Commissioned in the concerned Defence Service i.e. Indian Army, Indian Navy or Indian Airforce. It is also pertinent to add that all the cadets Commissioned through OTA Madras as short-service Commissioned Officers are initially Commissioned for a period of five years, after which they have an option to either continue or leave the service. All the non-optees are then released from service who are eligible to get all the benefits, except pension, that are available to ex-servicemen. Service record of those who opt to continue is scrutinised and all those found suitable are then granted permanent Commission. All those who are not found fit for permanent Commission are given an extension of service for a period of five years during which period they are allowed to apply for alternate employment and as soon as they get a job, they are released from service.

Coaching and Preparation
Candidates are advised to carry out a planned preparation for the written examination. A review of previous question papers is particularly beneficial. Regular reference to a good competition magazine like "The Competition Master" may be of immense use as it would assist the candidates in preparing English and General Knowledge papers. Features on Personality Development and General Intelligence are quite useful during the SSB interview.
The interview needs special preparations. As different from usual interviews, it is a comprehensive personality test to which most fresh candidates have no previous exposure. It is suggested that the candidates should go through some standard book on SSB interviews. It is also recommended that fresh candidates should join some coaching academy providing fruitful coaching for SSB interviews. Such academies/institutions are being run by retired service officers in several cities and towns.

Further Details
Detailed advertisement is published about six months before the date of examination in all leading newspapers which gives details of the examination. Complete details like rules, syllabus, medical standards, number of vacancies, etc are given in the corresponding issue of "Employment News". In addition, candidates Information Manuals containing details of objective-type-tests including sample questions, are supplied to all candidates alongwith the admission certificate, by the UPSC.

NDA and Naval Academy

The CDS Examination facilitates the graduates to seek careers in the defence forces as direct entry officers. Another opportunity, to the bright and energetic deserving candidates is available as NDA/Naval Academy Entry officers. This avenue is open to relatively younger candidates with 10+2 qualifications. NDA and Naval Academy (Executive Branch) provides assured career at young age with no financial burden of four-year training in the various training academies. The training at NDA culminates with a graduation degree from the Jawahar Lal Nehru University. Three-year training at NDA is followed up by one-year professional training at Indian Military Academy (IMA) for the Army, Naval Academy for the Indian Navy and Air Force Academy for the Air Force.

All these wings of Defence Forces offer very good career opportunities blended with adventure. Besides offering one of the best pay structure in the government service, the forces also offer facilities like free rations, free medical facilities, free/concessional travel by rail during leave, provident fund, group insurance and concessional residential accommodation. Besides, defence forces also offer a good social and regimented life. Time-bound promotions, upto a particular level, for all officers and selective top promotions to the meritorious and bright officers is the hallmark of a career in the defence forces.

The Selection Process
The UPSC conducts the NDA and Naval Academy (Executive Branch) Examination twice every year usually in the months of April and September. Each examination is conducted to select 350 candidates, with 214 seats for the Army, 43 for the Navy 73 for the Air Force and 20 seats for the Executive Branch of Naval Academy. At the time of submitting the applications, the candidates are required to give their preferences for particular wings of the forces. The advertisement for September Examination usually apperars in April, every year, in all major national and regional newspapers. Similarly, the advertisement for April examination usually appears in September/October. Simultaneously the detailed advertisement also appears in the "Employment News" of the concerned week.

(a) Eligibility: Only unmarried male candidates of the age group of 161/2 years to 19 years are eligible to take the examination for NDA/Naval Academy (Executive Branch). Educational qualification for Army and Air Force wing at NDA is 12th pass of 10+2 pattern or equivalent. For Naval wing of NDA and Naval Academy (Executive Branch), the educational qualification is 12th pass of 10+2 pattern with Physics and Mathematics or equivalent. The candidates appearing for the final examination of 10+2 standard are also eligible to appear.

For being eligible to appear in the examination, a candidate must be a citizen of India or a subject of Bhutan or Nepal. Tibetan refugees or persons of Indian Origin migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam, with the intention of permanently settling in India, are also eligible. However, candidates belonging to these categories shall need to obtain a certificate of eligibility from the Government of India.

A candidate seeking admission to the examination must send his application form to the UPSC on the proforma given in the advertisement for this examination. The admission to the examination is purely provisional as no certificates are required to be attached with the application.

(b) Written Examination: The candidates are tested in two papers of 21/2 hours duration each. First paper is of "Mathematics" and carries a maximum of 600 marks. The question papers consist of objective type questions and are set in English only. There is no fixed pass percentage of marks and depending on the number of candidates appearing in the examination and their overall performance, the qualifying marks are determined.

The paper-I on Mathematics is of Matriculation Examination standard and consists questions on Arithmetic, Mensuration, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and Statistics. Paper-II on General Ability consists of two parts. Part-A comprises of the test of English Language to judge the general understanding of English Language by the candidates and carries 200 marks. Part-B of Paper-II consists of General Knowledge carrying 400 marks and has six sections. The weightage given to these six sections of General Knowledge is: Physics 25% Chemistry 15%, General Science 10%, History, Freedom Movement etc 20%, Geography 20% and current Affairs 10%.

There are 40 centres of examination. The names of these centres are: Agartala, Ahmedabad, Aizawl, Allahabad, Bangalore, Bareilly, Bhopal, Bombay, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Cochin, Cuttack, Delhi, Dharwar, Dispur, Gangtok, Hyderabad, Imphal, Itanagar, Jaipur, Jammu, Jorhat, Kavaratti, Kohima, Lucknow, Madras, Madurai, Nagpur, Panaji, Patna, Port Blair, Raipur, Sambalpur, Shillong, Shimla, Srinagar, Tirupati, Trivandrum, Udaipur and Vishakhapatnam.

(c) Intelligence and Personality Test: Just like the CDS Examination, all the candidates declared successful in the written examination are required to qualify an intelligence and personality test conducted by the Services Selection Board (SSB). The intelligence tests at SSB are both oral as well as written and are designed to judge the basic intelligence of the candidates. During the four-day-personality test, the candidates are also put to Group Tests such as group discussion, group planning, outdoor group tasks etc. All these tests are aimed at judging the behaviour of the candidate in a group. In addition the personality test also requires a candidate to deliver an impromptu lecturette on the subjects of general interest as well as to clear ten obstacles in 30 seconds. This way mental calibre as well as physical robustness of the candidates is judged. The SSB interview is also blended with a series of psychological tests like Situation REaction Test (SRT) and pictures story writing. These psychological tests are aimed at judging the trait of positive outlook of the candidate. In broad terms, the intelligence and personality test is not only the test of intellectual faculties of the candidates but is also directed at judging their social traits, interest in current affairs and physical and psychological toughness which finally helps to judge their suitability for the services.

The candidates declared successful after the SSB interview are then required to undergo a comprehensive medical examination by a medical board in a local Military Hospital. To avoid the last minute disappointment the candidates are advised to get themselves medically examined as per the prescribed standards. Prescribed standards of medical fitness are given in the detailed advertisement given in the Employment News.

The Training Academies
On the basis of performance of the candidates in the written examination and the personality test, final merit list is prepared and published in all leading newspapers. The candidates, on the basis of their rank in the final merit list and preference, are asked to join at the NDA or Naval Academy (Executive Branch).

The three-year training at NDA includes the qualifying of certain physical standards, basic knowledge of three wings of the armed forces and study of academics leading to a graduation degree. In addition, basic etiquettes of the forces, discipline in the armed forces and basics of drill etc are also taught. After successful training spreading over six terms of six months each at NDA, the candidates, as per their choice, go to the Indian Military Academy for Army or to the Naval Academy for Navy or to the Air-Force Academy for Air Force for two terms of six months each. On successful completion of training at these academies, the cadets are Commissioned into the defence forces as Second Lieutenant (Army) or Acting sub-Lieutenant (Navy) or Pilot Officer (Air-Force). During the last six months of training the cadets are also entitled to the salary which is given to them in lump-sum, on commissioning.

Coaching and Preparations
Preparations for the written examination needs special attention, Mathematics paper, being theoretical in nature is comparatively easy to prepare. Paper-II (General Ability) needs special attention and preparation which consists of English and General Knowledge. Regular reading of "The Competition Master" is particularly useful for Paper-II as it effectively helps the candidates to prepare for English Language and General Knowledge. Similarly, SSB interview being different from routine interviews needs special preparations. There are certain academies, particularly those run by former officers of the defence forces, which provide useful coaching to the candidates preparing for the interview. The candidates may choose genuine academies and undergo coaching for the interview.

Further details about the examination are available in the detailed advertisment which appears in the Employment News. Information about the examination is also given in the "Candidates Information Manual" which gives details about objective-type tests. This booklet is supplied by the UPSC to all the candidates alongwith the admission certificate.